Top 15 Linux Bash Commands

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Bash is a Unix shell, which is a command-line interface for interacting with an operating system. It is the default shell on most Linux distributions. In this guide, we will cover the top 15 Linux bash commands along with examples to help you understand how to use them effectively.


Top 15 Linux bash commands with examples:

  1. pwd (print working directory): Displays the current directory you are in.
    • Example: pwd will output /home/user/documents.
  2. ls (list directory contents): Lists the files and directories in the current directory.
    • Example: ls will output file1.txt file2.txt folder1 folder2.
  3. cd (change directory): Changes the current directory to the specified directory.
    • Example: cd /home/user/downloads will change the current directory to /home/user/downloads.
  4. mkdir (make directory): Creates a new directory.
    • Example: mkdir newfolder will create a new folder named newfolder.
  5. rmdir (remove directory): Deletes an empty directory.
    • Example: rmdir oldfolder will delete the folder named oldfolder.
  6. touch (create a file): Creates an empty file.
    • Example: touch newfile.txt will create a new file named newfile.txt.
  7. rm (remove file): Deletes a file.
    • Example: rm oldfile.txt will delete the file named oldfile.txt.
  8. cp (copy files and directories): Copies a file or directory to a specified location.
    • Example: cp file1.txt /home/user/downloads will copy file1.txt to the /home/user/downloads directory.
  9. mv (move or rename files): Moves a file to a different location or renames a file.
    • Example: mv file1.txt file2.txt will rename file1.txt to file2.txt.
  10. cat (concatenate files and display them on the standard output): Shows the contents of a file.
    • Example: cat file.txt will display the contents of file.txt.
  11. head (display the first few lines of a file): Shows the first 10 lines of a file.
    • Example: head file.txt will display the first 10 lines of file.txt.
  12. tail (display the last few lines of a file): Shows the last 10 lines of a file.
    • Example: tail file.txt will display the last 10 lines of file.txt.
  13. sort (sort lines of text files): Sorts the lines of a file.
    • Example: sort file.txt will sort the lines of file.txt.
  14. uniq (display the unique lines in a sorted file): Shows the unique lines of a sorted file.
    • Example: sort file.txt | uniq will sort and show the unique lines of file.txt.
  15. grep (search for a pattern in a file): Searches for a specified pattern in a file.
    • Example: grep pattern file.txt will search for pattern in file.txt.


In conclusion, the top 15 Linux bash commands are a powerful tool for managing your operating system through the command-line interface. These commands provide you with the ability to navigate directories, create and delete files and directories, copy and move files, and manipulate the contents of files. Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced Linux user, these commands are essential to have in your toolkit. We hope this guide has been helpful in introducing you to these commands and providing examples to help you understand their usage.

If you are interested in exploring further, there are many resources available online to help you deepen your knowledge of Linux and bash commands. Happy exploring!

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